TECHNICAL REPORT GREEN ROOF
Mohamed Roseli Z.A., Lariyah, M.S., Rohani Ahmad, Beecham S., Ahmad Zafuan I.Z.A.Z., Devi P., Hezrin H. H.
A green roof by broad definition can be defined as any planted open space that is detached from the earth by a building or other structure; they are a contained green space on top of a human made structure (Beecham, 2003). The green roof system is considered as one of green technology products designed to provide not only panoramic view from the green pasture view, but also helps in terms of reduction in runoff and temperature to protect the environment in the long term. This system has been installed locally in various type of development such as hotel, luxurious residency area and roof top parking areas at some high rise buildings. Using vegetation on the roofs is not a modern invention. Turf roofs have been a traditional building technique in many places. However, in the last decades, modern versions have been developed for the needs we have in the cities today. The differences between a modern green roof and a turf roof are substantial, and this is mainly due to the different purposes and the materials available nowadays. The main objectives in the early days were to use the turf as insulation, and to stop the waterproofing layer, usually made from birch bark, from blowing away.
Today our objectives are mainly environmental, economical, and to improve storm water management, health and aesthetics in our communities. How green roofs can improve our cities and towns in these respects will be described in the following sections.
TECHNICAL REPORT GREY WATER REUSE
Grey water is non- industrial wastewater generated from domestic processes such as washing dishes, laundry and bathing. It comprises 50 - 80% of residential wastewater. Grey water is distinct from black water in the amount and composition of its chemical and biological contaminants (from faeces or toxic chemicals). Therefore, greywater is the components of domestic wastewater which have not originated from the toilet. Grey water contented with pathogenic micro organism including bacteria, protozoa, protein and viruses in concentration high enough to present a health risk. Grey water also contains oils, fats, detergents,soaps,salts and particles which can impact on operational
performance of life of greywater irrigation system. Therefore, a clear understanding of the potential health risk , operational performance and essential impacts that can be caused by improper designed greywater treatment and level application system.