2014

TECHNICAL REPORT GREEN ROOF

Mohamed Roseli Z.A., Lariyah, M.S., Rohani Ahmad, Beecham S., Ahmad Zafuan I.Z.A.Z., Devi P., Hezrin H. H.

A green roof by broad definition can be defined as any planted open space that is detached from the earth by a building or other structure; they are a contained green space on top of a human made structure (Beecham, 2003). The green roof system is considered as one of green technology products designed to provide not only panoramic view from the green pasture view, but also helps in terms of reduction in runoff and temperature to protect the environment in the long term. This system has been installed locally in various type of development such as hotel, luxurious residency area and roof top parking areas at some high rise buildings. Using vegetation on the roofs is not a modern invention. Turf roofs have been a traditional building technique in many places. However, in the last decades, modern versions have been developed for the needs we have in the cities today. The differences between a modern green roof and a turf roof are substantial, and this is mainly due to the different purposes and the materials available nowadays. The main objectives in the early days were to use the turf as insulation, and to stop the waterproofing layer, usually made from birch bark, from blowing away.
Today our objectives are mainly environmental, economical, and to improve storm water management, health and aesthetics in our communities. How green roofs can improve our cities and towns in these respects will be described in the following sections.

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TECHNICAL REPORT GREY WATER REUSE

 

Grey  water is non- industrial  wastewater  generated  from  domestic  processes  such  as washing dishes, laundry and bathing. It comprises 50 - 80% of residential wastewater. Grey water is  distinct  from  black  water  in  the  amount  and  composition  of its  chemical  and  biological contaminants  (from faeces or  toxic  chemicals). Therefore,  greywater  is  the  components  of domestic wastewater which have not originated from the toilet. Grey  water  contented  with pathogenic  micro  organism  including  bacteria,  protozoa, protein  and viruses  in  concentration  high  enough  to  present  a  health  risk. Grey  water  also contains  oils,  fats,  detergents,soaps,salts  and  particles  which  can  impact  on operational
performance  of  life  of  greywater  irrigation  system.  Therefore,  a  clear understanding  of  the potential  health  risk ,  operational  performance  and  essential  impacts  that  can  be  caused  by improper designed greywater treatment and level application system.

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